Permanent Secretary of the French Academy; Foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Previous positions: Professor of Russian History and Russian Politics in Sorbonne and Institute d'Estudes politiques de Paris, Member of European Parliament (1994-1999).
Research interests: Russian History (Eighteenth-Twentieth centuries); Soviet politics; nationality problems in the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and nationality relations in present-day Russia, Central Asia and Caucasus. Russian foreign policy, Russian demography.
Selected publications: “Reform and the Revolution in Central Asia”; “The Great Challenge (Nationalities and the Bolshevik State 1917-1930)”;“The Russian Syndrome”; “The Decline of an Empire”; “Lenin, Nicolas II, Catherine II, Alexander II, l'Empire d'Eurasie”.
Russian award: Great golden medal Lomonosov, Russian Academy of Sciences.