Ph.D in Philosophy, head of the Russian Institute of Religion and Politics and a member of the Presidential Council for Interaction with Religious Associations and the Council for Foreign and Defense Policies, who specializes in Arab and Islamic studies and has written extensively on various aspects of Islam.
Professor of Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan; Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan (1991–1992; 1997–2002); Secretary General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (2010–2012)
Founder, Director, Centre for Post-Industrial Studies, Professor of Economics; Head, Chair for World Economy and International Trade , Moscow State University’ School of Public Governance; Professor, National Research University – Higher School of Economics.
Doctor of Historical Science; Head of the Department of Iran and Afghanistan of the Rudaki Instituteof Language, Literature, Oriental and Written Heritage of the Academy of Science of the Republic of Tajikistan
Doctor of Political Science, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Acting President of the Republic of Tajikistan (1990–1992); Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Tajikistan; Chief Research Fellow of A. Bahovaddinov Institute of Philosophy, Political Science and Law of the Academy of Science of the Republic of Tajikistan
President of the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC); Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (1998–2004); Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation (2004–2007)