The safe, secure and reliable management of nuclear weapons has always been a complex and complicated business, plagued by uncertainty and risks.
But these challenges are being magnified and aggravated by new cyber tools, dynamics and capabilities, and from the threat posed by hackers seeking to gain access to, or interfere with, nuclear systems. This article covers such problems as the nature of the cyber challenge, new nuclear vulnerabilities, the role of cyber in deterring cyber-attacks as well as the cases of cyber-nuclear espionage.
About the author:
Andrew Futter, Senior Lecturer in International Politics, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Leicester ; Fellow of the UK Higher Education Academy.